Biological science is the study of living organisms and their relationship with each other and their environment. It examines the origin, evolution, structure and function of living things. A biologist might study cells under a microscope, insects in a tropical rain forest, viruses that affect human beings, plants in a greenhouse, or animal in a zoo.
Pursuing a career in biology can be enormously incentive oriented and enthusiastic. It requires, to a great extent, to ask questions, make observations, evaluate evidence, and solve problems. It increases our understanding about the natural world in which we live and helps us address issues of personal well being and worldwide concern, such as environmental depletion, threats to human health, and maintaining viable and abundant food supplies.
Many biological scientists work in research and development (R&D) organization. Biological scientists who work in applied research or product development use knowledge gained by basic research to develop new drugs, treatments, medical diagnostic tests, increase crop yields, and develop new bio-fuels. Work is generally performed in a laboratory or outdoor field setting. Other biological science graduates work in management or administration, planning programs for food and drug testing or managing a botanical garden.
Some of the Biological sciences are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms, where some are classified based on the extent at which organisms are being studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry investigates the fundamental chemistry of life; molecular biology examines the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; physiology studies the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism and cellular biology examines the basic building block of life, the cell.
The key areas of development and employment include the Pharmaceutical industry, Biotechnology, Bio informatics, Contract Research, Food Industry, Water Conservation, Gene Therapy, Global Warming and the Chemical Industry.
A four year specialized bachelor degree or formal sixteen years of education may be sufficient for some non-research jobs. Some graduates work as research assistants, laboratory technicians, or high school biology teachers. Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. A Ph.D. degree in biology or one of its specialized areas is necessary for independent research, industrial research, and college/University teaching, as well as for administrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs such as product development, management, or inspection.
In addition to required courses in chemistry and biology, undergraduate students usually study some computer courses. Computer courses are beneficial for modeling and simulating biological processes, operating some laboratory equipment, and performing research in the emerging field of bioinformatics. Some universities in Pakistan have also started a four years bachelor degree in Bioinformatics. Doctoral degree holders may face competition for basic research positions but after getting some experience they secure better positions very quickly. Graduates with bachelor and master degrees have more opportunities in nonscientist jobs related to biology.
MS/ M.Phill (if BS/M.Sc.)
Equivalence if other than FSc (A’Level etc...)
Entry Test for BS
Analytical/ able to Analyze
Patience and self-discipline to conduct long and detailed research projects.
Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina.
Should be able to work independently or as part of a team and
Be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing.
Strong business and communication skills for administrative positions
Graduates find employment in academic teaching and research, industrial research in the food and feed industries, in laboratory research programs with governmental and Multinational companies, and in industrial management positions.
Government Department of Agriculture
Private Pesticide Companies
Seed Cooperation of Pakistan
Soil Testing Laboratories
Tissue Culture Laboratories
Genetic Engineering Laboratories
Agri-Based Industries in Pakistan and Abroad
Private & Public Consultancies
Most Biological scientists need at least a master’s degree to work in basic or applied research, whereas a bachelor’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in product development.